Saturday, October 1st, 2022

Student Personal Beliefs & Behaviors – Scales and Sample Items


Math Efficacy: General
How certain are you that you can learn everything taught in math?

Math Efficacy: PALS
How sure are you that you can do even the most difficult homework problems in math?

Math Efficacy: Problem Solving Strategy Use
How certain are you that you could find more than one way to solve a math problem?


Interest (Combined)
I am fascinated by math.

Interest (Eccles)
How much do you like doing math?

Interest (New)
I enjoy the subject of math.

Utility (Combined)
Math concepts are valuable because they will help me in the future.

Utility (Eccles)
In general, how useful is what you learn in math?

Utility (New)
Math concepts are valuable because they will help me in the future.

Attainment (Combined)
Compared to most of your other school subjects, how important is it for you to be good at math?

Attainment (Eccles)
I feel that, to me, being good at solving problems which involve math or reasoning mathematically is important.

Attainment (New)
It is important to me to be a person who reasons mathematically.

Success in math requires a big investment of my time.

Emotion and Affect

• Math Anxiety
Math tests scare me.

Negative Affect
How often do you feel anxious in your math class?

Positive Affect
How often do you feel happy in your math class?

Achievement Goal Orientation

Mastery Approach
Learning a lot of new things is what is important to me in math.

Performance Approach
In math, doing better than other students is important to me.

Performance Avoid
My goal is to keep others from thinking I’m not smart in math.


• Cognitive Strategy Use – rehearsal
When I study for math, I read my notes, my homework, and the textbook over and over.

• Cognitive Strategy Use – organization
I outline my notes from math class or the textbook chapter.

• Metacognitive Strategy Use – planning, monitoring, regulating
During math class I think about whether I understand what the teacher is trying to explain.

Social/Contextual Strategy Use – Help-Seeking
If I didn’t understand something in this math class, I would ask another student in class for help.

• Time Management
I spend my time memorizing key equations or facts when I study for math.