Monday, June 26th, 2017

Resource Database

In addition to the summary of the literature, resources have been categorized into a searchable database according to keywords that were used to describe or define teacher motivation related to professional development. Searching by categories will yield a list. It should be recognized that many resources are assigned to multiple categories.

Achievement and Related Outcomes (66)

Articles in this category consider the ways in which the design and implementation of PD programs affect student achievement outcomes, offer examples in which achievement can be motivated by the desire to experience competence by both teachers and students, and gives a foundation for future research and PD opportunities.

Beliefs (17)

This section offers information which contributes to a more thorough understanding of the influence of teachers’ beliefs, relevant to the design of PD programs and educational reform. In trying to resolve hindrances to the implementation of educational reform efforts, educators have examined how to take into account teachers’ beliefs about these reforms and how best to support them in adopting changes in their teaching practices.

Classroom Characteristics (30)

This section contains sources describing the main influences on the day-to- day motivation for teachers in the classroom and with regard to their participation in PD. Articles focus on the factors which may undermine or enhance teacher motivation in these types of situations and experiences, and offer examples of practical solutions for problem-solving in the classroom for those educators who have a willingness to engage in new learning and PD opportunities as they become available.

Collaboration (36)

Topics in this section consider teacher collaboration as an effective means of connecting PD with the daily challenges faced by teachers. Research has shown that the inclusion of educators and other major stakeholders in the planning process and setting of goals for their PD often results in an improved ability for participants to translate their experiences more effectively in the classroom.

Curriculum (16)

This is a diverse collection of articles describing new PD approaches to using curriculum in school reform efforts to increase student achievement. These sources convey a widespread agreement that teachers’ views on the acceptability and usefulness of a particular curriculum program will significantly influence its implementation and success in integrating the curriculum into regular classroom practices towards school educational reform efforts. Several international studies are included.

Emotions (8)

In studies of emotion in educational contexts, sources in this category have shown that school reform has involved a reconstruction of teachers’ professional understanding of themselves and their beliefs. School reform may lead to intense feelings that cause teacher resistance or support in changing working conditions in schools and in teachers’ classroom practices, and articles in this section address the connection between teacher emotions, PD and student learning.

Empowerment (9)

The sources in this category provide a current view of PD as a framework within which educators can develop greater efficacy and empowerment through active engagement, in collaboration with colleagues, and involving an ongoing continuum of professional learning networks, with implications for teachers, principals, education leaders, and policy makers.

Grade Level (115)

The sources in this category cover grade levels that range from early childhood education through adult education programs, along with different international perspectives. These articles provide information on teaching concerns belonging to a particular grade level, as well as those that are shared across grade levels.

Identity (20)

An individual’s or group’s identity may be defined by race, ethnicity or gender, along with other criteria factors such as economic status, age, religion, and professional self-understanding and perception. Implications which result from the existence of multiple identities are highlighted in this section, with recommendations for the design of PD programs which incorporate the identity of teachers and other educational leaders in furthering their personal and professional growth as well as contributing to more effective learning environments for their students.

Institution/School Features (71)

Resources in this category suggest the many ways that PD can be offered to reflect the needs of the individual school environments and contexts. The types of schools represented range from elementary through high school, and encompass urban, rural, public and private school systems, and schools with different levels of student achievement.

International Comparisons (57)

There are 31 countries represented in this literature review. The articles in this section highlight the importance of taking into account the role of educational research in PD in many different contexts. A collection of articles from different regions of the world is available.

Motivation (104)

Articles are included from the perspective of teachers, as well as from those involved in designing PD programs, which explore the factors that contribute most to motivating teachers to engage in PD, the ways that teachers experience their participation, and how this enhances teacher and student learning.

New PD Resources (1)Perceptions (30)

The sources in this section offer information regarding the ways that teachers’ perceptions of their own needs interact with the types of support that are necessary to sustain successful pedagogical implementation of new practices through the educational system and PD programs. Articles in this category address the roles that intrinsic rewards, such as a sense of self- worth and accomplishment, have in developing positive attitudes and motivation to engage in PD programs.

Policies (21)

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation established by the previous Bush administration, and the policies of the Obama administration have changed the way education is being discussed in the U.S. and throughout the world, and the articles in this category reflect this, highlighting the importance of finding the PD models most likely to improve teacher practice and student performance.

Program Comparisons (12)

This category offers articles that address the spectrum of PD models in a comparative manner, relating to characteristics of individual PD programs, and also from an international perspective. Comparative analyses included here evaluate the most significant characteristics of PD suggested by members of professional educational organizations as part of effective PD programs.

Quality of Education (19)

In this section, a variety of topics are covered that report differing paths taken to increase the quality of education. Additionally, there are a significant number of sources concerned with greater expectations being placed on teachers for higher student outcomes and potential solutions which demonstrate effectiveness in advancing educational quality and increasing student achievement.

Reform and Innovation (89)

The articles in this section evaluate the different combinations in which PD programs are being designed in order to most effectively direct educational reform towards improving student performance in the areas most needed. Several international studies are included. These resources highlight some specific reform programs that seem to be effective and discuss which factors may be responsible for this progress.

Research (29)

The articles in this category acknowledge that a strong base of research is needed to guide the design and investment in PD for present applications, and offer evidence regarding the specific features in PD that could contribute to more effective educational practices, improved student achievement, and possible directions for future studies.

School Administration/Leadership (16)

The articles in this section reflect the desires of those in educational leadership positions for PD training to better assist them in meeting continually evolving government mandates in measuring student achievement levels and performance. Studies show an increasing call for the design of PD that can actively engage and prepare teachers for assuming leadership roles in their present and future positions in schools.

Student Behavior (6)

Sources in this section explore teachers’ perceptions of PD interventions which deepen teachers’ knowledge and understanding of students’ needs and abilities, offer practical strategies to improve student conduct, and suggest that teachers’ views of the usefulness and feasibility of these types of PD programs significantly influence successful implementation into their regular classroom practice.

Student Characteristics (26)

This category includes articles which investigate the characteristics of PD programs in high-performing and low-performing schools, and document how teachers who participated in PD programs which focused on understanding the development of students’ thinking continue to implement the programs long afterwards, signifying meaningful and sustained changes in their teaching practices through this kind of PD.

Subject Domains (116)

Math and science education represent the vast majority of articles in this category, however ten other domains are included as well which focus on the variety of ways that teacher motivation and PD influence student achievement.

Teacher Characteristics (104)

This category focuses on contexts, perceptions and motivations that contribute to teachers’ participation in PD, along with the outcomes resulting from their application of what was learned and gained through this engagement. The articles are relevant for a wide variety of issues that affect teachers, administrators, policy makers and designers of teacher PD programs.

Technology (33)

Sources in this category illustrate the growing wealth of information which provides guidance in facilitating the integration of technology into the educational process. For educators who seek innovative approaches to adapting technological advances into positive educational initiatives, the research findings from the articles in this section may be used to assist in designing PD that promotes good teaching, learning and creative thinking practices.

Testing and Standards (13)

New standards require new approaches to educating students, and resources in this section evaluate several different options for improving student achievement by enhancing the capacity of teachers and schools through PD to more successfully bridge the demands of students’ learning experiences and the demands of the federally mandated standards movement.

Theories (23)

The motivational theories mentioned in these articles, such as achievement goal theory, expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory, have been looked at in the context of PD programs and their implications for educational practice in light of these theoretical perspectives. Sources that suggest possible theoretical approaches to teacher motivation and PD could be useful to educators in guiding the design of PD programs and interventions.